By Betensky R.A., Louis D.N.
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Extra info for Analysis of a molecular genetic neuro-oncology study with partially biased selection
By the same process, transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are produced. The genetic information transferred to mRNA now determines the sequence of amino acids of the protein which will be synthesized. Nucleotides of mRNA are read sequentially, three at a time. 1). The synthesis of proteins occurs in ribosomes with the aid of transfer RNA. 1 The genetic code. First position Second position Third position U Phe Phe Leu Leu Ser Ser Ser Ser C Leu Leu Leu Leu Pro Pro Pro Pro His His Gln Gln Arg Arg Arg Arg A Ile I le lle Met Thr Thr Thr Thr Asn Asn LY~ LY~ Ser Ser Ars Arg G Val Val Val Val Ala Ala Ala Ala Asp Asp Glu Glu G~Y G~Y G~Y G~Y NS: Nonsense or chain terminating codon.
5 Rate of spontaneous mutation Before the development of molecular genetics, geneticists had established that the rate of spontaneous mutations per locus is of the order of 10- per generation in many higher organisms such as fruitfly, corn, and man. These estimates were obtained from studies of the changes of morphological or physiological characters, including lethal mutations. The mutations identified in this way possibly included some small chromosomal aberrations, while the mutations which do not change the phenotype drastically were not included.
Then, we would expect that the rate of deleterious mutations is constant per generation rather than per year. 7 Relation of mutation rate to rate of cell division. From Novick and Szilard (1950). Generation time, hours Rate of mutation per generation Rate of mutation per hour to be a small fraction of the total mutation and occur almost at any time. In classical genetics these mutations were almost never measured. In microorganisms there is evidence that the rate of nondeleterious mutations depends largely on chronological time rather than generation time.