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Extra resources for Analogy, Levelling, Markedness: Principles of Change in Phonology and Morphology
Prior to the change this stem type instantiates the situation represented by the schema in (1): 28 (16) Paul Kiparsky Underlying: /hari/ Output: /harii/ [harj-] Of the two potential underlying forms for bound forms of the light stems, /-ii/ is preferred over /-i/, for two reasons. First, this form is positively required by the the corresponding heavy stems, and secondly, it conforms to STEM-FORM. The generalization of the bound /-ii/ stem to short masculines thus both eliminates the weight condition from the allomorphy, making for a more general distribution of stem classes, and optimizes a class of stems by bringing them into complicity with the STEM-FORM constraint.
The Old English and Modern English forms are the attested ones, the Middle English forms are our hypothesis in keeping with what we expect given our analysis. (12) Summary of nouns with and without lengthening Old English Middle English Modern English SG PL SG PL SG PL Vowel a. OSL in singular and plural: Modern English long vowels talu tala tab tab > tale tales [e:] tabs nama naman nama naman > name names [e:] namas b. OSL in plural only: Modern English long and short vowels hol holu hol hob > hole holes [o:] holes god godes god gödes god gods [D] c.
The selection of suffixal allomorphy by the stem could be accounted for in two ways, (1) declensionally, with different stem classes determining particular sets of case endings, or (2) phonologically, with floating melodies corresponding to the lost stem vowel, which dock on to an empty nucleus in the case ending. The difference between the declensional analysis and the phonological analysis can be illustrated by the accusative plural. The declensional analysis would posit three endings -ans, -ins, or -uns, respectively selected by noun stems like dag-, gast-, and broopr-.