An Introduction to Biological Control by Robert van den Bosch, P. S. Messenger, A. P. Gutierrez

By Robert van den Bosch, P. S. Messenger, A. P. Gutierrez (auth.)

This quantity is a revision of organic keep an eye on by means of R. van den Bosch and P. S. Messenger, initially released via Intext Publishers. within the revision, i've got tried to maintain the unique topic, and to replace it with present study findings and new chapters or sections on insect pathology, microbial keep an eye on of weeds and plant pathogens, inhabitants dynamics, built-in pest administration, and economics. The publication used to be written as an undergraduate textual content, and never as a whole overview of the topic zone. a variety of extra comprehen­ sive volumes were written to function handbooks for the specialists. This booklet is designed to supply a concise review of the complicated and precious box of organic keep watch over and to teach the relationships to the constructing innovations of built-in pest administration. inhabitants legislation of pests by way of ordinary enemies is the foremost topic of the ebook, yet different organic equipment of pest keep watch over also are mentioned. The bankruptcy on inhabitants dynamics assumes a precalculus-level wisdom of arithmetic. writer names of species are indexed just once within the textual content, yet all are indexed within the Appendix. Any mistakes or omissions during this quantity are my sole accountability. A. P. Gutierrez Professor of Entomology department of organic regulate college of California, Berkeley vii Acknowledgments Very exact thank you needs to be given to my colleagues, Professors C. B. Huffaker and L. E. Caltagirone, for the very thorough assessment they supplied and for the numerous optimistic feedback they gave. Dr.

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The phenomenon in which more individuals of a given parasitoid species occur in a host individual than can develop to maturity in that host is called superparasitism. Where this occurs with solitary endoparasites, internecine battle or physiological suppression of the supernumerary larvae or eggs results in the survival of a dominant individual. In some cases, however, the host itself succumbs prematurely before the supernumerary parasites are eliminated, and all perish. Adelphoparasitism (autoparasitism).

This parasite, first released in southern California in 1914, soon spread widely, resulting in a History and Development of Biological Control 31 renewed interest in the biological control method and the consequent intensification of work in the state insectary under Smith. During the decade 1910-1920, more than a dozen cases of establishment of natural enemies for control of pests were recorded around the world. S. Department of Agriculture created a laboratory in France to serve as a base of operations for the collection, rearing, and identification of natural enemies of the European com borer, a major pest of com and other crops in central North America.

Cleptoparasitism. The phenomenon in which a parasitoid preferentially attacks hosts that are already parasitized by another species is called cleptoparasitism. The cleptoparasite is not hyperparasitic, for it does not parasitize the previously occurring parasite species. Instead, multiple parasitism is involved, and the relationship between the two species is competitive, with the cleptoparasite usually dominating. Modes of Reproduction In the parasitic Hymenoptera, several different patterns of reproduction occur that have important bearing on the ecology and habits of different species.

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