Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology: Volume by A. D. C. Macknight (auth.), Professor Dr. R. Gilles, Dr. E.

By A. D. C. Macknight (auth.), Professor Dr. R. Gilles, Dr. E. K. Hoffmann, Dr. L. Bolis (eds.)

Advances in Compararative and Environmental Physiology is helping biologists, physiologists, and biochemists continue tune of the large literature within the box. supplying entire, built-in experiences and sound, serious, and provocative summaries, this sequence is a must for all lively researchers in environmental and comparative body structure. mobile quantity and osmolality in animals is a good studied subject and this particular quantity within the sequence offers the reader with an intensive grounding during this quarter of body structure. which include components, the textual content discusses osmolality and quantity keep watch over when it comes to either inorganic and natural ions which consequently supplies a superb evaluation to these operating and drawn to this field.

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The situation in the small intestine is less clear, for, although osmotic gradients established between lumen and interstitial fluid are rapidly dissipated, this is most probably largely a reflection of the leaky nature of the tight junctions which allows a high rate of water flow through the paracellular pathway. The permeability of the apical plasma membranes need not be great and there is no evidence for hormonal control of water permeability in this part of the gut. Alternatively, cells will also be protected if the basolateral membrane water permeability is so great that water driven into the cell by the gradient between lumen and cell can be lost as rapidly, driven by the gradient between cell and interstitial fluid.

Thus, the volume of the cells is detennined by the constituents of the gel and their properties. In this view alterations in medium osmolarity result only in temporary changes in volume as net gain in water occurs, before the gel returns to its equilibrium volume. However, such arguments assume negligible effects of ionic strength on the swelling equilibrium and fail to explain changes in volume following exposure to ouabain and changes in medium composition under isosmotic conditions. Secondly, do all epithelial cells of the same type in a tissue have the same transport properties and cell volumes?

Am J Physiol 243:CI46-CI50 Eveloff JL, Calmina J (1986) Effect of osmolarity on cation fluxes in medullary thick ascending limb cells. Am J PhysioI250:FI76-FI80 Eveloff JL, Warnock DG (1987) Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation. Am J PhysioI252:FI-FIO Finn AL, Reuss L (1975) Effects of changes in the composition of the serosal solution on the electrical properties of the toad urinary bladder epithelium. J Physiol 250:541-558 Fisher RS, Spring KR (1984) Intracellular activities during volume regulation by Necturus gallbladder.

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