By J.L. Arpigny, J. Coyette, S. Davail, G. Feller, E. Fonze, E.C. Foulkes, J.-M. Frere, R. Fujii, S. Genicot, C. Gerday, B. Joris, J. Lamotte-Brasseur, J.N. Maina, E. Narinx, M. Nguyen-Disteche, N. Oshima, A. Vairengo, Z. Zekhnini
ADVANCES IN COMPARATIVE AND ENVIRONMENTAL body structure is helping biologists, physiologists, and biochemists preserve tune of the wide literature in thefield. supplying accomplished, built-in reports and sound, serious, and provocative summaries, this sequence is a needs to for all lively researchers in environmental and comparative body structure. the current quantity comprises six reports on: - Motile actions of Fish Chromatophores. - Epithelial delivery of Heavy Metals. - Heavy steel Cytotoxicity in Marine Organisms. - Comparative Pulmonary Morphology and Morphometry. - Molecular diversifications in Resistance to Penicillins. - Molecular diversifications of Enzymes From Thermophilic and Psychrophilic Organisms.
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For example, chromatophores of the eel seem to be solely under the control of the endocrine system (cf. Parker 1948), whereas the motile iridophores of the blue damselfish are regulated exclusively by sympathetic postganglionic fibers (Kasukawa et a!. 1986a). Between these two extreme cases, there are common examples of both systems operating together to varying extents. It is not at all difficult to determine whether or not particular chroma tophores in the skin are regulated by the nervous system.
They further noted that these substances at higher doses elicited aggregation of pigment, with the effect being mediated by alpha-adrenoceptors. The dispersion responses could easily be antagonized by beta-adrenolytic drugs. It was concluded, therefore, that beta-adrenoceptors are definitely involved in the darkening responses of fish. The same conclusion was subsequently reached by Obika (1976), Iga (1983) and several other researchers for a variety of teleosts. Morishita et al. (1985) classified the beta-receptor that mediates dispersion of melanosomes in Oryzias as being of the beta2 type.
The resultant nucleoside, adenosine, survives for a longer period in the synaptic cleft and functions to reverse the influence of the true transmitter, namely, to cause the re-dispersion of pigment, via specific receptors for adenosine on the effector membrane. Most of the nucleoside is finally removed by re-uptake into presynaptic nervous elements, and the remainder is carried away by the circulation. One important aspect of the proposed dual-transmitter theory is that there is a substantial difference, in terms of action, between the true transmitter and the co-transmitter.