A tonal grammar of Kwanyama by Riikka Halme

By Riikka Halme

Kwanyama ('Oshikwanyama' in keeping with the legitimate Namibian common) is a Wambo language, and correspondingly belongs to the Bantu languages. it really is spoken by means of way over part 1000000 humans in South Angola and Namibia.
Certainly this quantity contains the audio system of alternative closely-related Wambo types in Angola. those languages were studied particularly little, and the research in their tonal platforms has been fairly overlooked. the current booklet is the 1st cartoon of Kwanyama grammar with a scientific account on tone. the most goal is to supply an research of the tonal process of this language. for that reason the learn discusses either the lexical tone, i.e. tone as an inherent estate of a lexeme, and the grammatical tone wich marks grammatical houses. the writer lived in a Kwanyama-speaking group in Angola for roughly part a yr and had the chance there to enhance her linguistic competence. As a researcher she retains to the culture of Generative Phonology within the experience that there are ideas that take the tone styles from the underlying illustration to a binary floor illustration, i.e. tonemes. for you to aid the reader to stick with the argumentation of the tonal research, this publication is organised in this type of means that the segmental and tonal degrees are mentioned individually, through discussions on tone in nouns, verbs and minor note different types. After that, the research is said to the broader context of analysis on Guthrie's staff R languages, in particular the Wambo languages. eventually, the reader unearths nominal and verbal paradigms in addition to a few texts, and a vocabulary Kwanyama-Englisch containing approximately 6,000 entries.

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4). For the noun–adjective contrast, nothing new is required, but the adjective–verb contrast requires a novel principle that expresses what is special about first and second person agreement as opposed to agreement in other features. 5). Throughout this chapter, I concentrate on the most familiar syntactic categories (nouns, verbs, and adjectives) used in the most canonical ways (as predicates and as modifiers) and present the simplest versions of the principles needed to account for them. Subsequent chapters extend this core account empirically to other syntactic structures and other parts of speech, as well as deepening the principles theoretically and showing how they vary parametrically.

The category-theoretic infrastructure 31 d. *The Italian destruction of itself{i} . . (compare The Italian self-destruction . ) Inside a derived nominal, the name of a country and an adjective derived from it can be nearly synonymous, either one serving to express the agent of the event named by the derived nominal, as shown in (45a) and (45b) (see also Grimshaw 1990, Giorgi and Longobardi 1991, and many others). But when the object of the derived nominal is a reflexive anaphor, a difference emerges: the genitive noun phrase is fine ((45c)), but the nationality adjective is strongly degraded ((45d)).

Furthermore, it is common for verbs to be derived from adjectival roots, derivations that may or may not be morphologically marked (see Baker 2003a:159–69 for examples and discussion). Mayali is an excellent example. Given this, imagine a language that does not have adjectives as a distinct class (at the relevant level), and that has person agreement on verbs but not on nouns (as usual). Stassen and other functionalist typologists would interpret this as a language in which the antecedent clause of (34a) is false, but the antecedent clause of (34b) is true.

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