A Systematic Treatment of Fruit Types by Richard W. Spjut

By Richard W. Spjut

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Alaback, and E. R. Fuentes. Ecological Studies 116. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ———, and J. Pojar. Vegetation from ridgetop to seashore. Pp. 69–88 in The rainforests of home. Ed. P. K. Schoonmaker, B. von Hagen, and E. Washington DC: Island Press. Allen, E. , Allen, M. , Helm, D. ,Trappe, J. , and E. Rincon. 1995. Patterns and regulation of mycorrhizal plant and fungal diversity. Plant and Soil 170:47– 62. Armesto, J. , C. Smith-Ramirez, and C. Sabag. The importance of plant-bird mutualisms in the temperate rain forest of southern South America.

FAO. 2005. The global forest resources assessment 2005. org/forestry/fra2005/ en/ Farjon,A. 2005. Monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. , D. A. Clark, and M. Worbes. 2003. Age and long-term growth of trees in an old-growth tropical rain forest, based on analyses of tree rings and 14C1. Biotropica 35 (3):306–17. Franklin, J. ,T. A. Van Pelt, A. B. Carey, D. Thornburg, D. Rae Berg, D. B. Lindenmayer, et al. 2002. Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas-fir forests as an example.

Ecologists today generally recognize that forest ecosystems are comprised of three main “ingredients”: composition—the mix of species in a forest; structure—the vertical and horizontal dimensions and spatial patterns of a forest; and function—the workings of a forest expressed through nutrient cycling, foodweb and disturbance dynamics, forest succession, pollination, and many other processes (Perry et al. 2008). The regions identified as temperate and boreal rainforest in this book have a suite of underlying characteristics along these lines that can be used to further distinguish them from each other as well as from their tropical counterparts.

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