A score test for the linkage analysis of qualitative and by Dudoit S., Speed T. P.

By Dudoit S., Speed T. P.

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Locality mean discriminant (D 2 ) in Drosophila robusta plotted against average annual temperature of locality. Small circles represent localities with only one strain, medium circles localities with two or three strains, large circles represent localities with four or five strains. Letters refer to locality key. ; P, St. ; R, St. ; S, Mt. ; X, Big Fish Lake, Minn. ) were significantly more "northern" in their morphology than those from the lower altitudes. Body size increased with increasing altitude, the largest difference occurring between 426 and 610 m (1400 to 2000 ft).

Melanogaster to low temperatures permitting at most 10% to 15% of individuals to survive, from which subsequent generations were set up. Initial exposure levels were 0°C/14 hr for eggs, 0°C/26 hr for second-instar larvae, 0°C/30 hr for third-instar larvae, -3°C/14 hr for pupae, and -3°C/28 hr for adults. Responses to selection occurred in all cases, and the stress levels were increased after the fifteenth, twenty-fifth, and thirty-ninth generations. After 52 generations of selection, that is, after almost 4 years, coldresistance levels had increased 123 times above the initial value in eggs, 75 times in second-instar larvae, 73 times in third-instar larvae, 81 times in pupae, and 558 times in adults.

Colonizing species must be sufficiently tolerant of physical stresses in new habitats for resource utilization to occur and fall into the range of most cosmopolitan species. Those Drosophila species not attracted to fermented-fruit baits do not appear to have the biochemical phenotype for major range expansions. These include D. hibisci, which is restricted to endemic Hibiscus flowers, and D. inornata, which is mainly from Australian temperatezone rain forests. Both of these species utilize little or no ethanol as a resource and are effectively Adh-null with respect to the Adh locus.

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