By William B Boyce; William J Davis
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Extra resources for A grammar of the Kaffir language
Some languages which have distinct reflexive and non-reflexive third person pronouns do not make such a distinction for the other persons, but instead use the same first and second person pronouns both reflexively and non-reflexively. Note the following examples from French: (65) a. Ils me voient they me see ‘They see me’ b. Je me vois I me see ‘I see myself’ (66) a. Ils te voient they you see ‘They see you’ b. Tu te vois you you see ‘You see yourself’ (67) a. Ils les voient they them see ‘They see them’ b.
Dancing ‘I watched the ones who were dancing’ cf. Sumasayaw ang mga tao were. dancing top pl person ‘The people were dancing’ The use of a verb as an argument is to be distinguished from the probably more common use of a verbal noun as an argument, as in Akan: (17) Mehwεε asaw no I. watched dancing the ‘I watched the dancing’ The verbal noun is a noun which is morphologically related to a verb, but which does not itself occur as a verbal predicate. For example, the verbal noun asaw of (17) is related to the verb saw ‘dance’ but could never itself be used as a predicate.
5) in non-pro-form sentences. ) One common type of pro-clause is the question tag: a word with the force of a question which is appended to another clause. Some question tags are used to form alternative questions, others to form confirmation questions. g. ), and quite commonly it is a word meaning ‘or’ that is used as an alternative-question tag, as in the following example from Hausa: (91) Ana ruwa, ko? one. ’ Confirmation questions are questions in which the speaker is asking for confirmation of a statement to which the question tag is appended.